Distance - Power Transformers (1.2 CEU's)


  • Looking for professional development but do not have the time to take off from work?

  • Looking for refresher course on specific engineering topics and cannot find an intensive course to serve your needs?

  • This may be your ideal Professional Development course!

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This course is approximately 3 weeks in duration.

Learning Method:

  • The PDDP program is more of a self-guided learning style.

  • You are required to read the notes and materials given, complete the follow-up assignments on your own, send in your questions prior to your 1 hour webinar meeting (if required) and be involved in live discussion via the internet.

  • Once you have completed the course, you will receive a certificate of completion

The student will learn the following related to Electrical Power Transformers:
  • The Principle of Operation
  • Types, dry versus oil cooled
  • Major components
  • Maintenance, testing and troubleshooting
  • Grounding
  • Connection Diagrams
  • Parallel Operation
  • Life Extension and Loading
  • Relay Protection Schemes

The PDDP Distance Education program works as follows:

  • Once you register for this course, you will be sent a login username and password for our online distance website.

  • You will receive the course notes in hard copy through the online website, you will receive a set of notes each week covering the course material.

  • A one hour video-conference session will be conducted by your instructor each week (if required). The objective of this session is to assist in solving the assignments, as well as answer student questions that should be sent to instructor early enough prior to the meeting time. In addition with being able to communicate with the instructor, you will also be able to communicate with other students in the same class and watch their questions being answered as well. (A high speed internet connection is strongly recommended for this feature).

  • Each set of exercises can be completed and submitted by the indicated date and your completed exercise will be marked online and and returned by your instructor.

  • To gain the most from your course, it is highly recommended that you participate fully in all discussions and exercises. Please remember that each course has a form of quiz or exercise at the end to test your understanding of the material. You will be informed of these dates when you receive the course schedule.

*Course commencement date is subject to instructor availability.

Dr. Eduard Loiczli

Eduard Loiczli is currently a Nuclear Integration Senior Electrical Engineer for Ontario Power Generation. He has more than 26 years experience in Electrical Engineering and Controls and has made many achievements in the industry. He has designed programming applications for nuclear applications, SCADA and DCS. He has also created programming and integration solutions for oil extraction and an automated line for the glass industry. In addition to programming solutions, Mr Loiczli has been project leader for design in many electrical projects.
Mr Loiczli is a member of IEEE, Ontario Fire Association and APEO. He is a Certified Nuclear Engineer.


Part 1. Transformer Design and Construction Students will be introduced to the different types of single- and three-phase transformers construction, various types of core material, windings layout, connection, tap changers, voltage classifications and transformer applications, with an emphasis on explaining recent innovations in transformer design.
  • Transformer Core
    • Transformer Core
    • Core Form and Shell Form
    • Core Loss
    • Exciting Current
    • Noise level
    • Structure
  • Transformer Windings
    • Winding Conductors
    • Load Loss
    • Impedance and voltage drop
    • Winding Insulation
    • Cooling Structure
    • Short Circuit Withstand Capability
    • Core and Coil Assembly
  • Transformer Insulation
    • Oil Paper Insulation System
    • Two Functions of Insulation Fluid
    • Various Insulation Fluids
    • Factors Affecting Quality
    • Factors Accelerating Degradation
    • Paper and Pressboard Insulation
    • Two Functions of Solid Insulation
    • Factors Affecting Quality
    • Factors Accelerating Aging
    • Aging Cycle
  • Transformer Tank
    • Main Tank
    • Main Tank Components
    • Seals, Gaskets and Valves, Bushings
    • Oil Preservation Systems
    • Air Cell Systems
    • Breathing Systems
    • Auto-Recharging Dehydrating Breather
    • Oil Cooling Systems
    • Transformer Bushings Subsystem
  • Accessory
    • Voltage Class
    • Current Ratings
    • Top and Bottom Terminal Connections
    • Mounting Flange
    • Test and Voltage Taps
    • Air Side Dimensions
    • Oil Side Dimensions
    • CT, PT and instrumentation
    • Oil Reservoir
  • Tap Changers
    • Tap Changers Structure and Functionality LTC /ULTC-Load Tap Changers DETC (OCTC)-De Energized Tap Changers Headboard Links and Connections
  • Components and Accessories
    • Top Oil Temperature Monitoring
    • Devices/Indicators
    • Winding Temperature Monitoring
    • Devices/Indicators
    • Liquid Level Gauges/Indicators
    • Pressure and Vacuum Gauges/Indicators
    • Pressure Relief Device
    • Gas Detection Relays
    • Alarm and trip functions are equipped and preset
  • Transformer Applications and Types
    • Dry Type
    • Liquid Filled
    • Industrial vs Public Distribution
    • Potential Transformers (PTs)
    • Current Transformers (CTs)
    • Control and Power Supply Transformers
    • Auto Transformers
    • Transformer Operation and Theory
  • What is happening inside Transformers
    • Load versus No Load
    • Transformer Losses
    • Hysteresis Losses
    • Eddy Current Losses
    • Copper losses
    • Stray Losses
    • Relationship Between Primary and Secondary Values Transformer Polarity Single Phase Transformer Connections Transformer Impedance Transformer Ratings Optimum Transformer Rating
  • Transformer Cooling
    • Dry Transformer Cooling
    • Oil Transformer cooling
    • Forced Cooling
    • Transformer Cooling Techniques and Devices
  • Transformer Connections and Connection Group
    • Three-Phase Theory/Transformer Types
    • Transformer Configuration
    • Three Phase Transformer Connections
    • Delta Connection
    • Wye 'Star' (Y) connection
    • Voltage and Current in Various Combinations Transformer Terminal Markings and Identifications
  • Transformer behavior under load condition
    • Resistive Loads
    • Inductive Loads
    • Capacitive Loads
    • Three-Phase Ratio's
    • Parallel Operation of 3 Phase Transformers Phase Angle Shift Phase Rotation Grounding Transformers Auto Transformers Regulators Phase Shifters Three-Phase Ratios Transformer De-Rating Harmonics K-Factor
  • Mechanism of transformer failure
    • Transformer Failures
    • Misapplication
    • Vibration
    • High Operating Temperature
    • Lightning or Line Surges
    • Overloading
    • Care of Control Equipment
    • Lack of Cleanliness
    • Care of Idle or Spare Equipment
    • Improper Lubrication
    • Careless or Negligent Operation
Part 2. Transformer Field Diagnostics Tests and Techniques
  • Winding Resistance
    • Testing Techniques
    • Voltmeter – Ammeter Method
    • Bridge Technique
    • Micro Ohmmeter
  • Transformer Ratio/Polarity
    • Testing Techniques
    • Inductive Kick (DC Method) Polarity
    • Alternative Voltage (AC Method) Polarity Turn Ratio Test Set Double Voltage Meters
  • Excitation Current Measurement
    • Hysteresis
    • Eddy currents
    • Copper losses
  • Short Circuit Impedance Measurement
    • Testing Techniques
    • Voltmeter – Ammeter Method
  • Sweep Frequency Response Analysis
    • Testing Techniques
    • Problems Detected
    • Shifted Winding/Core
    • Deformed Windings
    • Loose Windings
  • Insulation Resistance
    • Testing Techniques
    • Megger
    • Polarization Index Test (PI)
    • Can Detect the Following Problems Insulation Dryness Insulation Contamination Sensitive to Temperature
  • Insulation Capacitance And Power Factor
    • Testing Techniques
    • Capacitance Bridge Method – DF
    • AC Dielectric Loss Method - PF
  • Partial Discharge Measurement
    • Can Detect the Following Problems Insulation Defects Insulation Contamination Air bubbles trapped in Insulation Localized High Electrical Stress PD is the "Cancer" of Insulation System PD Detector RIV
  • Transformer Core Testing
    • Problems
    • Insulation Resistance
    • More Grounding Points
    • Megger
    • Separate external core ground lead from 250 resistor Measure core
  • Insulating Oil Testing
    • Sulphur in transformer oil solutions Resolving moisture in transformer oil Proposed Federal PCB transformer regulationsTransformer on-line oil monitoring techniques Various tests performed on insulating oil
    • Properties and Parameters of insulating
    • Why oil sample?
    • Dielectric Breakdown
    • Water Content
    • Power Factor
    • DGA "Key" Fault Gasses
    • Benchmarks
    • Rating System
  • Bushing Visual Check
    • Oil Level
    • Leaking
    • Chipped Porcelain
    • Fractured Flange
    • Poor Gaskets
    • Peeled Painting
    • Terminal Connection
    • Corrosion
  • Tap Changers
    • DETC
    • Contact Resistance Increase
    • Loose Contact Pressure
    • Misalignment
    • Electrical and mechanical centers
    • LTC
    • Contact Continuity
    • Arcing Switch and Tap Selector
    • Drive Mechanism Operation
    • Motor
    • Timing
    • Oil Compartment
    • Protection and Control 
  • Transformer Tank
    • Visual Check
    • Oil Leaking
    • Poor Gaskets
    • Peeled Painting
    • Rust/Corrosion
    • Temperature Hot Spot
  • Components And Accessories
    • Visual Check and Function Test Cooling System – Radiators, Fans or Pumps Gauges and Indicators – Oil Level, Pressure and Temperature Pressure Relief Device Gas Relay Air Breather Inert Air System Oil Filters
  • Infrared Temperature Measurement
    • Bushing
    • Tank
    • Cooling System
  • Recommendations for life extension of a Power Transformer

GIC reserves the right to cancel or change the date or location of its events. GIC's responsibility will, under no circumstances, exceed the amount of the fee collected. GIC is not responsible for the purchase of non-refundable travel arrangements or accommodations or the cancellation/change fees associated with cancelling them. Please call to confirm that the course is running before confirming travel arrangements and accommodations. Please click here for complete policies.

This is a Professional Development Distance Program Course. These are scheduled with a start and end date.

We could offer any of our courses at a location of your choice and customized contents according to your needs, please contact us at : inhouse@gic-edu.com or click here  to submit an online request.

Course Materials

Each participant will receive a complete set of course notes and handouts that will serve as informative references.


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Related Courses
CEUs Certificate

A certificate of completed Continuing Education Units (CEUs) will be granted at the end of this course. A fee is required for all complimentary webinars.

On-Site Training

This course can be customized and delivered on-site at your facility.

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