HVAC: Fundamentals & Design (1.8 CEU's)

Daily Schedule:

8:00am - Registration and coffee (1st day only)

8:30am - Session begins
4:30pm - Adjournment
Breakfast, two refreshment breaks and lunch are provided daily.


Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are ubiquitous in today’s comfort-driven society. In addition to their most common use of creating a comfortable environment, they also find application in various process industries. The objective of this three-day foundational course is to help the participants improve their understanding of the subject fundamentals and develop their design skills in this field. To this end, workshop sessions will be used to illustrate the design calculations and procedures in a step by step manner and give hands-on practice to the participants. Important industry standards will also be briefly introduced at appropriate locations in the course to help the participants develop an awareness of the key standards that significantly influence the design process. Design of HVAC systems is an extremely broad and complex field that requires substantial time and effort to develop true expertise. Hence, a list of important references will be given at the end of each module to help the participants dig deeper into the material and develop mastery in their particular area of interest. Various quizzes will be used to reinforce the course material and identify knowledge gaps. The knowledge gained through this course will help the attendees in becoming a more informed and intelligent user of various HVAC design and analysis software tools.


Target Audience

  • Young engineering graduates and technologists keen on building a career in the HVAC industry.
  • Consultants and other professionals interested in enhancing their knowledge in the field of HVAC.

Mandeep Sekhon

Mandeep Sekhon, PhD. is a Mechanical Engineer with expertise in the broad area of thermalfluid sciences and energy engineering. He obtained his master’s degree in Energy Studies from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and conducted research work in the area of modeling and simulation of energy efficient HVAC systems. Subsequently, he worked in the energy industry for three years and was involved in the thermal design and operation of a process plant. Thereafter, he obtained his PhD. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Victoria, BC and worked in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). After completing his PhD., Dr. Sekhon moved to the University of California Merced and worked as a postdoctoral researcher. He is presently completing an online graduate certificate in Teaching, Training, and Educational Technology from the North Carolina State University. Dr. Sekhon has published six international journal articles and has been an invited speaker at various talks focused toward the scientific community. He is also a current member of ASHRAE and ASME.
Day 1
Module #1: Fundamentals
• Introduction to Air Conditioning & Built Environment
  • Comfort & Process Air Conditioning
  • Important Codes & Standards
  • HVAC Building Projects
• Classification and Selection of Air Conditioning Systems
  • Central Systems
  • All-Air Systems
  • Air-Water Systems
  • All-Water Systems
  • Unitary/Packaged Systems
  • Heat Pumps
  • Evaporative Air Conditioning Systems
  • Steam Based Systems
• Refrigeration Systems
  • Vapor Compression Cycle
  • Vapor Absorption Cycle
  • Refrigerants
  • Environmental Issues (GWP & ODP)
• Psychrometry & Psychrometric Processes
  • Moist Air Properties
  • Graphical Representation of Properties (Psychrometric Chart)
  • Adiabatic Saturation & Wet Bulb Temperature
  • Psychrometric Processes & their Representation
  • SHF, BPF, & ADP of Cooling Coils
  • Air Washers & Enthalpy Potential
Workshop #1: Calculation of moist air properties that has undergone various psychrometric processes.
Module #2: Introduction to the Design of HVAC Systems
• The Overall Design Process
  • Major Phases & Steps
• Thermal Comfort, Ventilation, and Indoor Air Quality
  • Thermal Comfort & Factors Affecting it
  • Important Thermal Comfort Indices
  • ASHRAE Standard 55
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • Common Contaminants & Pollutants
  • Control Methods
  • ASHRAE Standards 62.1 & 62.2
  • Sick Building Syndrome
  • Indoor Design Conditions
• Outside Design Conditions
  • Important Considerations
  • Design Day Calculations
  • Outdoor Design Conditions for Summer & Winter
• Supply Design Conditions
  • Cooling Coil Load Estimation
  • Selection of Supply State
  • High Latent Load Applications
• Energy Efficient Design
  • Design Strategies
  • ASHRAE 90.1 Standard
Workshop #2: Calculation of cooling coil load and supply design conditions for a summer air-conditioning system.
Day 2
Module #3: Building Load Calculations
Learning Outcomes #3
• Solar Radiation
  • Important Terminology
  • Solar Angles
  • Estimation of Total Solar Irradiation & ASHRAE Clear Sky Model
• Building Heat Transfer
  • Heat Transfer Through Fenestration
  • Basic Mechanism & Total Heat Gain
  • Effect of External & Internal Shading
  • Heat Transfer through Opaque Walls & Roofs
  • Resistance Network & Steady State Analysis
  • Homogenous & Non-Homogenous Walls
  • U-Factor & Other Important Heat Transfer Data
  • Sol- Air Temperature & Unsteady Heat Transfer
  • Thermal Mass Effects
• Zoning Considerations
  • Concept
  • Guidelines
  • Benefits
• Cooling & Heating Load Calculations
  • Load Terminology
  • External Loads
  • Heat transfer through Opaque Surfaces
  • Heat transfer through Fenestration
  • Ventilation
  • Infiltration
  • Internal Loads
  • Occupant, Lighting & Equipment
  • Fans & Pumps
  • Leakage Losses through Ducts
  • Cooling Load Calculation Methods
  • Heating Load Calculation Method
  • Rules of Thumb
  • Software Modeling & Simulation
Workshop #3: Performing load design calculations using Trace 700.
Module #4: Design of Airside Systems
• Introduction & Types
  • Single & Dual Duct Systems
  • Constant & Variable Volume Systems
  • Single & Multizone Systems
  • Reheat Systems
  • Three Deck Systems
  • Dual Path Systems
• Transmission System Design
  • Flow of Air Through Ducts
  • Fan Total Pressure
  • Frictional & Dynamic Pressure Drops in Ducts
  • Static Regain
  • Duct Design
  • General Design Features
  • Duct Design Methods
  • Performance & Optimization
  • Fans
  • Fan Laws
  • Combined Fan & Duct System Characteristics
  • Fan Selection
• Distribution System Design
  • Basic Concepts & Definitions
  • Free Stream Jet Behavior
  • Room Air Diffusion Systems
  • Performance
  • Design Considerations
• Practical Examples of Various Airside Systems
Workshop #4: Sizing the ducts using various duct design methods.
Day 3
Module #5: Design of Waterside Systems
• Introduction & Types
  • Basic Components
  • Open & Closed Systems
  • Temperature Classification
• Overall Design Procedure
• Piping Network
  • Series Arrangement
  • Parallel Arrangement
  • Direct Return
  • Reverse Return
  • Chiller Water Distribution System
  • Constant & Variable Flow Systems
  • Single & Multiple Load Applications
  • Parallel & Series Arrangements
  • Primary & Primary-Secondary Variable Flow Systems
  • Condenser-Water System
  • Dual Temperature System
  • Two Pipe Systems
  • Four Pipe Systems
• Load Control
  • Control Valves
• Sizing of Pipes & Pressure Drop Calculations
• Pipe Materials
• System Characteristics
• Design of Pumping System
  • Centrifugal Pumps
  • Pump Head Curves
  • Pump Affinity Laws
  • Combined System & Pump Characteristics
  • Pump Selection
• Expansion Tank & Air Elimination
• Other Design Issues
Workshop #5: Hydronic system piping design and pumping requirements.
Module #6: HVAC Equipment:
• Chillers
  • Introduction & Types
  • Major Components
  • Performance Characteristics & Efficiency Ratings
  • General Guidelines on Chiller Selection
• Air Handling Unit (AHU)
  • Introduction & Types
  • Main Components
  • Examples of Various AHU Configurations
  • Selection & Performance of Coils
• Cooling Tower
  • Introduction & Types
  • Selection Guidelines
• Room Air Distribution
  • Outlets for Supply Air
  • Selection Guidelines
  • Return & Exhaust Inlets
• Terminal Devices
  • VAV Boxes/Terminal Units
  • Fan Coil Units
  • Chilled Beams
  • Radiant Heating & Cooling Panels
• Energy Recovery Equipment
  • Evaporative Coolers
  • Enthalpy Wheels
  • Desiccant Wheels
  • Run Around Coils
  • Plate Exchangers
  • Heat Pipes
Workshop #6: Sizing & selection of a cooling coil

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Toronto Airport West
5444 Dixie Rd
Mississauga, ON
L4W 2L2
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Course Materials

Each participant will receive a complete set of course notes and handouts that will serve as informative references.


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